Regions of the Brain

It is not a simple task to accurately map the various regions of the brain and their respective functions. There are many regions that share tasks with other regions, but I've listed a few of the major regions and a rough overview of their functions.

Frontal Lobe
Regulates our behaviour, responsible for thought and planning.

Occipital Lobe
Processes visuals.
Temporal Lobes
Deals with language and sound processing (among other things).
Parietal Lobes
Spacial perception, and partially responsible for movement and touch.
Processes visceral information such as temperature and taste.
Limbic System
For emotions - comprises of Amgydala, Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Hippocampus.
Active when we feel emotions.
Storage and retrieval of long-term memories.
Connection site between sensory components and higher functions (thought).
Processing center for other regions of the brain and body, receives information and sends responses. The master of the pituitary gland.

Pituitary Gland
Secretes hormones to control every major gland in the body.

Basal Ganglia
Interface between the brain and the motor centres, plans and makes movements. Responsible for interpretation of other people's movement and body language.
Motor, movement and balance center, also helps in the planning and timing of actions, judging shapes, and involved in language and reading.
Basic survival & instinct. Controls eating, sleeping and breathing.
Corpus Callosum
Connects the two brain hemispheres and allows them to interact.